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Periodontics / Gum Enlargement Theraphy

Gingival enlargement is referred to an increase in the size of the gingiva. Gingival enlargement is caused by a number of factors, which includes inflammatory conditions and the side effects of certain medications. Gingival enlargement is categorized into 5 groups:

Inflammatory enlargement

Drug induced enlargement

Enlargement associated with systemic diseases or conditions

Neoplastic enlargement

False enlargement

Causes of Gingival enlargement

The following are a few causes of Gingival enlargement:

Inflammatory enlargement

Gingival enlargement is caused due to a number of reasons. The most common reason is chronic inflammatory gingival enlargement, when the gingivae are soft and discolored. This is caused due to edema and infective cellular infiltration caused due to exposure of bacterial plaque and is treated with periodontal treatment.

Gingivitis and gingival enlargement are seen in mouth breathers due to irritation brought by surface dehydration. The formation of plaque is the main cause of inflammatory gingival enlargement. Risk factors include poor oral hygiene and physical irritation of the gingival caused due to improper orthodontic and restorative appliances.

Drug-induced enlargement

Also termed as drug induced gingival enlargement may associate with the administration of 3 different classes of drugs. Gingival overgrowth is a side effect of phenytoin termed as Phenytoin-induced gingival overgrowth.

Many diseases can result in oral manifestations that include gingival enlargement, few of them are related to certain conditions such as:

Conditioned enlargement



Vitamin C deficiency

Nonspecific, such as a pyogenic granuloma

Systemic disease causing enlargement


Granulolomatous diseases, such as granulomatosis with polyangiitis, sarcoidosis, or orofacial granulomatosis.[16]


Benign neoplasms, such as fibromas, papillomas and giant cell granulomas

Malignant neoplasms, such as a carcinoma or malignant melanoma

False gingival enlargements, such as when there is an underlying bony or dental tissue lesion

Gingival enlargement treatment

Gingival overgrowth can be improved through good oral hygiene. In the case of chronic inflammatory gingival enlargement, fibrotic components that do not respond to and shrinks when exposed to scaling and root planing are treated with surgical removal of the excess tissue, the procedure is referred as gingivectomy.


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